Impression Liu Sanjie, the Landscape Live Performance

Impression Liu Sanjie is the first “landscape live performance” in China. Impression of Liu Sanjie premiered on March 20, 2004 at the song festival of Liu Sanjie, a mile from West Street. This is the world’s largest nature theater, with Lijiang River water as the stage and 12 misty mountains and sky as the background. Fog, rain, moonlight, mountains and their reflections on the river all become the ever-changing natural background. Its auditorium is located on the natural island of the river. The audience stands on the designed terrace, surrounded by green plants. The sound equipment here is invisible because it’s in harmony with nature.

Valleys, hills, cool winds and gurgling streams are all factors that produce three-dimensional sound effects. Day by day, different weather provides different scenery, four distinct seasons, refreshing and impressive, Liu Sanjie will have a unique experience every time. This is really a new concept opera with nature as the performing subject, so it is named “a masterpiece of cooperation between man and God”.

Maybe you’ve heard of the 1961 movie “Liu Sanjie”, which made Lijiang famous all over the world. Liu Sanjie is a fairy singer in Zhuang mythology. She is incomparably beautiful and has a voice to match her beauty. In Liu Sanjie’s impression, you can see the impression of people living by the Lijiang River, not the specific details of the story. From these impressions, you will have a real impression of the background of Sanjie’s birthplace and understand the beauty of the hometown of folk songs.The story of Liu Sanjie in folklore is a complicated and divergent discourse. There are not only conflicts between different values of the same class of people, but also conflicts between different social classes; there are not only portraits of real life, but also romantic fantasies, ghosts and witches. Due to the spread and evolution of the legend in different historical periods, different cities and different nationalities, the story has accumulated layers, been related to each other and contradicted with each other. But anyway, Liu Sanjie in the folklore contains Folk Ethics, folk wisdom, folk imagination and folk interest, which are the most charming and dynamic places in Liu Sanjie’s folklore.

Du Fu, Du Shaoling, Zimei, One of the Greatest Poets in China

Du Fu was a famous poet in the Tang Dynasty, honored as “Poet Sage”.

Although Du Fu is best known for his poetry, his pursuits were not purely literary. In fact, one of Du Fu’s dearest hopes was to help China as a civil servant. However, this dream was never realized. In fact, he lived during a time of great unrest of China. Du Fu’s life was marked by the An Lushan Rebellion, which lasted from 755 to 763. The An Lushan Rebellion is also known as the Tianbao Rebellion and the An Shi Rebellion.

He gained little distinction in the official examinations, but remained a minor civil servant who was then uprooted by the An Lu-shan rebellion that destroyed the first Tang dynasty.

He was usually poor, and occasionally close to starvation. The major turning points in his life were his meeting and friendship with Li Po (701-62), and the civil war, which opened his eyes to the sufferings of the common people.

Two major themes in Du Fu’s poetry are morality and history. For this reason, the works are not only of literary interest; philosophers and historians alike have found useful information and ideas in his works. Du Fu wrote poems on military tactics and the goings-on within the government. He even wrote poems to the emperor which included words of advice. One of his most famous works on moral engagement is also one of his earliest works. Titled “The Song of the Wagons,” this poetic work is about a soldier struggling with the suffering that he had to endure in order to fulfill his duties.

The whole life of Du Fu witnessed the Tang Dynasty from prosperity to decline. During this time, Du Fu led a largely itinerant life unsettled by wars, and received a pure and profound understanding of social phenomena. Du Fu’s compassion, for the state and for the age, was part of his most direct feelings in his poems. The over 1,450 poems, that are still circulated now, with remarkable accomplishments in thoughts and arts, have far reaching effects on the development of Chinese literature, and his poems have been dubbed the “Poet-History”. He is identified as the man of “Complete Symphony” who served as a link between the past and now, the greatest poet of “realism”.

Because of both the volume and influence of his writing, Du Fu has been hailed among Western readers as the Eastern Virgil, Ovid, or Shakespeare. Since his death, approximately fifteen hundred of his poems have survived and been handed down through the generations. Furthermore, not only have his poems been enjoyed in translation by Western readers, but they have also been enjoyed by other Asian nations, particularly Japan.

Li Bai, Li Bo, Taibai, Qinglian Jushi, One of the Greatest Poets in China

Libai was a Chinese poet. He was part of the group of Chinese scholars called the “Eight Immortals of the Wine Cup” in a poem by fellow poet Du Fu. Li Bai is often regarded, along with Du Fu, as one of the two greatest poets in China’s literary history. Approximately 1,100 of his poems remain today.

Li Bai is best known for the extravagant imagination and striking Taoist imagery in his poetry, as well as for his great love for liquor. Like Du Fu, he spent much of his life travelling, although in his case it was because his wealth allowed him to, rather than because his poverty forced him. He is said, famously but untruly, to have drowned in the Yangtze River, having fallen from his boat while drunkenly trying to embrace the reflection of the moon.

Over a thousand poems are attributed to him, but the authenticity of many of these is uncertain. He is best known for his yuefu poems and “Jinti Shi” poems, which are intense and often fantastic. He is often associated with Taoism: there is a strong element of this in his works, both in the sentiments they express and in their spontaneous tone.

Li Bai was a romantic in his view of life and in his verse. One of the most famous wine drinkers in China’s long tradition of imbibers, Li Bai frequently celebrated the joy of drinking. He also wrote of friendship, solitude, the passage of time, and the joys of nature with brilliance and great freshness of imagination. Li Bai superficially was famous for his poem, but the deeper thing behind his poem was his character of pursuing freedom and harmony with nature as well as his identity of Taoist. Li Bai liked alcohol and swords martial arts. So traditionally, rather than his splendid poem, the most classic impression of Li Bai left to his fans and poem lovers was that his free and drunk visit to mountains, waters and unexplored regions of ancient China with a sword.

At the early time, Li Bai was ambitious and wanted to have a career in social contribution. Li Bai was quite talented but he was reluctant to attend the imperial examination. On the contrary, he hoped someone could recommend him to be an official, so he created a classically famous prose named Yu Han Jin Zhou Shu, or a letter to Mr, Han, whose name was Han Chaozong, the governor of Jingzhou Region, roughly administrated today’s Hubei and part of Hunan provinces. He wanted to recommend himself via this letter; however, he was not responded at all. In 742, he was recommended to Emperor Xuanzong by a famous Taoist, who was also Li Bai’s friend and a welcomed figure of Emperor Xuanzong. From then on, Li Bai stepped into the official circle. This was commonly considered to be a good thing, but due to his unique characters and habit, this was also the beginning of his official life.

Beijing Opera, Jinghuang, Daxi, Pingju, Jingxi

Beijing Opera is extolled as ‘Oriental Opera’. Having a history of 160 years, it has created many ‘firsts’ in Chinese dramas: the abundance of repertoires, the number of artists, opera troupes and spectators.

Beijing Opera is developed from absorbing many other dramatic forms, mostly from the local drama ‘Huiban’ which was popular in South China during the 18th century. It is a scenic art integrating music, performance, literature, aria, and face-painting. Certain rules are set up and regulations are standardized during many artists’ long practice on stage. Different from regional plays, it is stricter on the variety of the workmanship. The combination of virtual and reality – a special technique of expression, keeps it largely free from the restriction of time and space on stage performance. Beijing Opera has had many interesting names since it came into being, such as Jinghuang, Daxi, Pingju, Jingxi.


Its main melodies originated from Xipi and Erhuang in Anhui and Hubei respectively, It is believed that Beijing Opera gradually came into being after 1790 when the famous four Anhui opera troupes came to Beijing. Beijing Opera underwent fast development during the reign of Emperor Qianlong and the notorious Empress Dowager Cixi under the imperial patron, eventually becoming more accessible to the common people.

It has a history of more than 200 years. It is a form of traditional Chinese theater which combines music and acrobatics. It arose in the late 18th century and became fully developed and recognized by the mid-19th century. The form was extremely popular in the Qing Dynasty. The art form is also enjoyed in Taiwan, where it is known as Guoju. It has also spread to other countries such as the Unite States and Japan.

Four Roles

There are four roles in Beijing Opera – Sheng(a male role, usually a leading one), Dan(female roles), Jing(painted-face roles) and Chou(Clown role). These roles have the natural features of age and sex, as well as social status, and are artificially exaggerated by makeup, costume and gestures. All but the second portray a male or masculine character. Until recently, even that of the female or feminine character was played by a male actor.


It’s a common name of male characters and composed of Lao Sheng and Xiao Sheng. Lao Sheng refers to the middle-aged man with a beard who acts as the decency figure; for example, Zhugeliang in ‘Empty City Scheme’. Xiao Sheng means young man without a beard. Zhangsheng in ‘The Story of the West Room’ is a representative of Xiao Sheng.


The general name for female characters can be divided into Zhengdan, Huadan, Laodan, Wudan. Zhengdan is also called ‘Qingyi’, who mainly plays the part of the strong-minded middle-aged woman who behaves elegantly. Huadan refers to little girls who often live in the bottom of society. Laodan refers to the senior woman and Wudan indicates the female who is good at fighting.


Painted face often refers to male characters with unique appearance or personality, such as Baozheng and Caocao. Besides, Chou is a comic role or villainous character or righteous person. The actor’s nose is painted by a piece of white powder, making him or her easily recognizable.

Facial Painting

Facial painting in Beijing OperaLianpu is formed through dramatic artists’ long-term practice and their understanding and judgment of the roles in plays. It is the colorful dressing on actors’ faces. By using transformative and exaggerated figures, professional spectators would easily tell the characteristic of a role. In this way, it is called ‘the picture of hearts’. There are certain formats of the facial painting in the aspect of color, type and shape. Usually, eyes, foreheads and cheeks are painted like wings of butterflies, swallows and bats.

Colors of Lianpu are varied with each representing a characteristic. For example, red symbolizes loyalty, such as Guanyu, a great general during Three Kingdoms Period (220-280). Black signifies honesty and frankness, such as Lord Bao, a righteous official during Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127), or abruptness and impertinence, such as Likui, an important figure in the famous Chinese ancient novel ‘All Men Are Brothers’. White stands for cattiness and cunning, with Caocao as its representative, a famous politician in the late Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220).


Costumes are an integral part of the Beijing Opera performance. That are called Xingtou or Xifu in Chinese. In the early days, opera costumes were mainly made of wool or coarse cloth; later, satin, crepe and silk were used, decorated with various meticulously embroidered patterns. The making of opera costumes is a special and unique stagecraft. The costume box first appeared in the Ming Dynasty, and was greatly improved in the Qing Dynasty.

The Art of War, Sun Tzu, Sun Wu

The Art of War is an ancient Chinese military treatise attributed to Sun Tzu ,a high-ranking military general, strategist and tactician, and it was believed to have been compiled during the late Spring and Autumn period.The text is composed of 13 chapters, each of which is devoted to one aspect of warfare. It is commonly known to be the definitive work on military strategy and tactics of its time. It has been the most famous and influential of China’s Seven Military Classics, and for the last two thousand years it remained the most important military treatise in Asia, where even the common people knew it by name. It has had an influence on Eastern and Western military thinking, business tactics, legal strategy, and beyond.

Sun Tzu

Sun Tzu was a Chinese author of The Art of War, an immensely influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy. He is also one of the earliest realists in international relations theory.

The name Sun Tzu (“Master Sun”) is an honorific title bestowed upon Sun Wu, the author’s name. The character Wu, meaning “military”, is the same as the character in Wushu, or martial art.

Warrior and philosopher Sun Wu is very popular worldwide and many famous military officials and politicians have referenced him. The principals and ideas presented in the Art of War have been used in almost any aspect of the modern world – business, politics, sports, and diplomacy. Millenniums old Sun Tzu quotes on friends, friendship, enemy, war and victory provide practical tips for everyday success in the modern world.


In thirteen concise chapters of the Art of War, general Sun Tzu defines a sophisticated science in a deliberative manner, starting with a key assertion: “War is a vital matter of state.”

  1. Laying plans

Detail assessment and planning explores the five fundamental factors (the Way, seasons, terrain, leadership and management) and seven elements that determine the outcomes of military engagements. By thinking, assessing and comparing these points, a commander can calculate his chances of victory. Habitual deviation from these calculations will ensure failure via improper action. The text stresses that war is a very grave matter for the state and must not be commenced without due consideration.

  1. Waging war

Waging war explains how to understand the economy of warfare and how success requires winning decisive engagements quickly. This section advises that successful military campaigns require limiting the cost of competition and conflict.

  1. Attack by stratagem

Strategic attack defines the source of strength as unity, not size, and discusses the five factors that are needed to succeed in any war. In order of importance, these critical factors are: attack, strategy, alliances, army and cities.

  1. Tactical dispositions

Disposition of the army explains the importance of defending existing positions until a commander is capable of advancing from those positions in safety. It teaches commanders the importance of recognizing strategic opportunities, and teaches not to create opportunities for the enemy.

  1. Energy

Forces explains the use of creativity and timing in building an army’s momentum.

  1. Weak points & strong

Weaknesses and Strengths explains how an army’s opportunities come from the openings in the environment caused by the relative weakness of the enemy in a given area.

  1. Maneuvering

Military maneuvers explains the dangers of direct conflict and how to win those confrontations when they are forced upon the commander.

  1. Variation in tactics

Variations and adaptability focuses on the need for flexibility in an army’s responses. It explains how to respond to shifting circumstances successfully.

  1. The army on the march

Movement and development of troops describes the different situations in which an army finds itself as it moves through new enemy territories, and how to respond to these situations. Much of this section focuses on evaluating the intentions of others.

  1. Terrain

Situational positioning looks at the three general areas of resistance (distance, dangers and barriers) and the six types of ground positions that arise from them. Each of these six field positions offer certain advantages and disadvantages.

  1. The nine situations

Nine terrains describes the nine common situations (or stages) in a campaign, from scattering to deadly, and the specific focus that a commander will need in order to successfully navigate them.

  1. The attack by fire

Attacking with fire explains the general use of weapons and the specific use of the environment as a weapon. This section examines the five targets for attack, the five types of environmental attack and the appropriate responses to such attacks.

  1. The use of spies

Intelligence and espionage focuses on the importance of developing good information sources, and specifies the five types of intelligence sources and how to best manage each of them.

The Analects of Confucius, Thoughts of Confucius

The Analects of Confucius is famed as the collection of the words and deeds of Confucius and has greatly influenced the culture of China and neighboring nations as the most cherished scripture of Confucianism. According to most traditional accounts, Confucius never wrote down his teachings. They were passed down verbally and later put in writing, and not necessarily in a very systematic way. The Analects is widely regarded as the most dependable record of his various sayings and conversations.


Confucius is recognized as China’s first and greatest teacher, and his ideas have been the fertile soil in which the Chinese cultural tradition has flourished.

Confucius (551-479 BCE) was born in the ancient state of Lu into an era of unrelenting, escalating violence as seven of the strongest states in the pro to-Chinese world warred for supremacy. The landscape was not only fierce politically but also intellectually. Although Confucius enjoyed great popularity as a teacher, and many of his students found their way into political office, he personally had little influence in Lu. And so he began to travel from state to state as an itinerant philosopher to persuade political leaders that his teachings were a formula for social and political success. Eventually, his philosophies came to dictate the standard of behavior for all of society–including the emperor himself.


The thoughts of Confucius has been the bedrock of Chinese main culture, and has brought influence to people’s mind and behavior even today. It is an important window to grasp Chinese culture to have a good understanding of Confucius.

He maintains the idea that everyone has the right to be educated, and that education should be offered to all classes. While spreading the spirit of being insatiable in learning and tireless in teaching, he strives for educating students in accordance with their aptitude by adopting an elicitation method of teaching.

As the founder of Confucianism, he contributed greatly to the development and success of traditional Chinese culture. He established benevolence and rites as the core of his theory. Benevolence is an ethical system as well as a moral realm, the core of which is the advocacy of love for humans.

Thoughts of Confucius

In the Analects, Confucius presents himself as a “transmitter who invented nothing”. He put the greatest emphasis on the importance of study, and it is the Chinese character for study (or learning) that opens the text. In this respect, he is seen by Chinese people as the Greatest Master. Far from trying to build a systematic theory of life and society or establish a formalism of rites, he wanted his disciples to think deeply for themselves and relentlessly study the outside world, mostly through the old scriptures and by relating the moral problems of the present to past political events (like the Annals) or past expressions of feelings by common people and reflective members of the elite (preserved in the poems of the Book of Odes).

In times of division, chaos, and endless wars between feudal states, he wanted to restore the Mandate of Heaven “天命” that could unify the “world” and bestow peace and prosperity on the people. Because his vision of personal and social perfections was framed as a revival of the ordered society of earlier times. Confucius is often considered a great proponent of conservatism. But a closer look at what he proposes often shows that he used (and perhaps twisted) past institutions and rites to push a new political agenda of his own: a revival of a unified royal state, whose rulers would succeed to power on the basis of their moral merit, not their parentage;these would be rulers devoted to their people, reaching for personal and social perfection.

Such a ruler would spread his own virtues to the people instead of imposing proper behavior with laws and rules. One of the deepest teachings of Confucius may have been the superiority of personal exemplification over explicit rules of behavior. Because his moral teachings emphasise self-cultivation, emulation of moral exemplars, and the attainment of skilled judgment rather than knowledge of rule, Confucius’s ethics may be considered a type of virtue ethics. His teachings rarely rely on reasoned argument, and ethical ideals and methods are conveyed more indirectly, through allusions, innuendo, and even tautology. This is why his teachings need to be examined and put into proper context in order to be understood.